Java Fundamentals and Machine Learning Summary and Resources

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1.Inheritance can be defined as the process where one class acquires the properties (methods and fields) of another. With the use of inheritance the information is made manageable in a hierarchical order.

 

2. If a class inherits a method from its superclass, then there is a chance to override the method provided that it is not marked final.

The benefit of overriding is: ability to define a behavior that’s specific to the subclass type, which means a subclass can implement a parent class method based on its requirement.

In object-oriented terms, overriding means to override the functionality of an existing method.

 

3. Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. The most common use of polymorphism in OOP occurs when a parent class reference is used to refer to a child class object.

 

4. An overridden method is invoked at run time, no matter what data type the reference is that was used in the source code at compile time.

 

5. Abstraction is a process of hiding the implementation details from the user, only the functionality will be provided to the user. In other words, the user will have the information on what the object does instead of how it does it.

 

6. An exception (or exceptional event) is a problem that arises during the execution of a program. When an Exception occurs the normal flow of the program is disrupted and the program/Application terminates abnormally, which is not recommended, therefore, these exceptions are to be handled.

1) Checked exceptions − A checked exception is an exception that occurs at the compile time, these are also called as compile time exceptions. These exceptions cannot simply be ignored at the time of compilation, the programmer should take care of (handle) these exceptions.

2) Unchecked exceptions − An unchecked exception is an exception that occurs at the time of execution. These are also called as Runtime Exceptions. These include programming bugs, such as logic errors or improper use of an API. Runtime exceptions are ignored at the time of compilation.

3) Errors − These are not exceptions at all, but problems that arise beyond the control of the user or the programmer. Errors are typically ignored in your code because you can rarely do anything about an error. For example, if a stack overflow occurs, an error will arise. They are also ignored at the time of compilation.

 

7. In Java, just like methods, variables of a class too can have another class as its member. Writing a class within another is allowed in Java. The class written within is called the nested class, and the class that holds the inner class is called the outer class.

Inner classes are a security mechanism in Java. We know a class cannot be associated with the access modifier private, but if we have the class as a member of other class, then the inner class can be made private. And this is also used to access the private members of a class.

1) Inner Class

2) Method-local Inner Class

3) Method-local Inner Class

 

8. Encapsulation in Java is a mechanism of wrapping the data (variables) and code acting on the data (methods) together as a single unit. In encapsulation, the variables of a class will be hidden from other classes, and can be accessed only through the methods of their current class. Therefore, it is also known as data hiding.

 

Benefits of Encapsulation:

The fields of a class can be made read-only or write-only.

A class can have total control over what is stored in its fields.

The users of a class do not know how the class stores its data. A class can change the data type of a field and users of the class do not need to change any of their code.

 

9. An interface is a reference type in Java. It is similar to class. It is a collection of abstract methods. A class implements an interface, thereby inheriting the abstract methods of the interface.

1) When a class implements an interface, you can think of the class as signing a contract, agreeing to perform the specific behaviors of the interface. If a class does not perform all the behaviors of the interface, the class must declare itself as abstract. (Interface is like the protocol in Objective C)

2) There are two basic design purposes of tagging interfaces −Creates a common parent  and Adds a data type to a class.

 

10. Packages are used in Java in order to prevent naming conflicts, to control access, to make searching/locating and usage of classes, interfaces, enumerations and annotations easier, etc.

1) A Package can be defined as a grouping of related types (classes, interfaces, enumerations and annotations ) providing access protection and namespace management.

 

11. A collections framework is a unified architecture for representing and manipulating collections. All collections frameworks contain the following

1) Interfaces − These are abstract data types that represent collections. Interfaces allow collections to be manipulated independently of the details of their representation. In object-oriented languages, interfaces generally form a hierarchy.

2) Implementations, i.e., Classes − These are the concrete implementations of the collection interfaces. In essence, they are reusable data structures.

3) Algorithms − These are the methods that perform useful computations, such as searching and sorting, on objects that implement collection interfaces. The algorithms are said to be polymorphic: that is, the same method can be used on many different implementations of the appropriate collection interface.

 

12. Java Generic methods and generic classes enable programmers to specify, with a single method declaration, a set of related methods, or with a single class declaration, a set of related types, respectively.

 

13. Java provides a mechanism, called object serialization where an object can be represented as a sequence of bytes that includes the object’s data as well as information about the object’s type and the types of data stored in the object.

 

14. Sockets provide the communication mechanism between two computers using TCP. A client program creates a socket on its end of the communication and attempts to connect that socket to a server.

 

15. Java is a multi-threaded programming language which means we can develop multi-threaded program using Java. A multi-threaded program contains two or more parts that can run concurrently and each part can handle a different task at the same time making optimal use of the available resources specially when your computer has multiple CPUs.

1) Create a Thread by Implementing a Runnable Interface

2) Create a Thread by Extending a Thread Class

 

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Resources:

Core Java Volume I–Fundamentals (10th Edition) (Core Series)

Core Java, Volume II–Advanced Features (10th Edition) (Core Series)

Test-Driven Java Development

Java Concurrency in Practice

Java: An Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming (7th Edition)

Java 9 for Programmers (Deitel Developer Series)

Java SE8 for the Really Impatient: A Short Course on the Basics (Java Series)

Core Java for the Impatient

Java: The Beginners Guide for every non-programmer which will attend you trough your learning process

Java Deep Learning Essentials

Machine Learning in Java

Learning Reactive Programming With Java 8

Java 9 Programming By Example

Thinking in Java (4th Edition)

The Java EE Architect’s Handbook, Second Edition: How to be a successful application architect for Java EE applications

Java Artificial Intelligence: Made Easy, w/ Java Programming

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About liyao13

Yao Li is a web and iOS developer, blogger and he has a passion for technology and business. In his blogs, he shares code snippets, tutorials, resources and notes to help people develop their skills. Donate $5 to him for a coffee with PayPal at About Me page and read more professional and interesting technical blog articles. Follow him @Yaoli0615 at Twitter to get latest tech updates.
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